by Judith R. Mackrell

Dance, the movement of the body in a rhythmic way, usually to music and within a given space, for the purpose of expressing an idea or emotion, releasing energy, or simply taking delight in the movement itself.

Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves. These two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced largely by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject. In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, and neither can exist without the other.
Although the above broad definition covers all forms of the art, philosophers and critics throughout history have suggested different definitions of dance that have amounted to little more than descriptions of the kind of dance with which each writer was most familiar. Thus, Aristotle’s statement in the Poetics that dance is rhythmic movement whose purpose is “to represent men’s characters as well as what they do and suffer” refers to the central role that dance played in classical Greek theatre, where the chorus through its movements reenacted the themes of the drama during lyric interludes.
The English ballet master John Weaver, writing in 1721, argued on the other hand that “Dancing is an elegant, and regular movement, harmoniously composed of beautiful Attitudes, and contrasted graceful Posture of the Body, and parts thereof.” Weaver’s description reflects very clearly the kind of dignified and courtly movement that characterized the ballet of his time, with its highly formalized aesthetics and lack of forceful emotion. The 19th-century French dance historian Gaston Vuillier also emphasized the qualities of grace, harmony, and beauty, distinguishing “true” dance from the crude and spontaneous movements of early man:
The choreographic art . . . was probably unknown to the earlier ages of humanity. Savage man, wandering in forests, devouring the quivering flesh of his spoils, can have known nothing of those rhythmic postures which reflect sweet and caressing sensations entirely alien to his moods. The nearest approach to such must have been the leaps and bounds, the incoherent gestures, by which he expressed the joys and furies of his brutal life.
John Martin, the 20th-century dance critic, almost ignored the formal aspect of dance in emphasizing its role as a physical expression of inner emotion. In doing so, he betrayed his own sympathy toward the Expressionist school of modern American dance: “At the root of all these varied manifestations of dancing . . . lies the common impulse to resort to movement to externalise states which we cannot externalise by rational means. This is basic dance.”
A truly universal definition of dance must, therefore, return to the fundamental principle that dance is an art form or activity that utilizes the body and the range of movement of which the body is capable. Unlike the movements performed in everyday living, dance movements are not directly related to work, travel, or survival. Dance may, of course, be made up of movements associated with these activities, as in the work dances common to many cultures, and it may even accompany such activities. But even in the most practical dances, movements that make up the dance are not reducible to those of straightforward labour; rather, they involve some extra qualities such as self-expression, aesthetic pleasure, and entertainment.
This article discusses the techniques and components of dance as well as the aesthetic principles behind its appreciation as an art. Various types of dance are discussed with emphasis on their style and choreography. The history of dance in various regions is treated in a number of articles; see dance, African; music and dance, Oceanic; dance, Western; arts, Central Asian; arts, East Asian; arts, Islamic; dance, Native American; arts, South Asian; and arts, Southeast Asian. The interaction between dance and other art forms is discussed in folk dance.

The aesthetics of dance

Basic motives: self-expression and physical release
One of the most basic motives of dance is the expression and communication of emotion. People—and even certain higher animals—often dance as a way of releasing powerful feelings, such as sudden accesses of high spirits, joy, impatience, or anger. These motive forces can be seen not only in the spontaneous skipping, stamping, and jumping movements often performed in moments of intense emotion, but also in the more formalized movements of “set” dances, such as tribal war dances or festive folk dances. Here the dance helps to generate emotions as well as release them.
People also dance for the pleasure of experiencing the body and the surrounding environment in new and special ways. Dance often involves movement being taken to an extreme, with, for example, the arms being flung or stretched out, the head lifted back, and the body arched or twisted. Also, it often involves a special effort or stylization, such as high kicks, leaps, or measured walks. Dance movements tend to be organized into a spatial or rhythmic pattern, tracing lines or circles on the ground, following a certain order of steps, or conforming to a pattern of regular accents or stresses.
All of these characteristics may produce a state of mind and body that is very different from that of everyday experience. The dance requires unaccustomed patterns of muscular exertion and relaxation as well as an unusually intense or sustained expenditure of energy. The dancer may become intensely aware of the force of gravity and of a state of equilibrium or disequilibrium that normal activities do not generate. At the same time, the dance creates a very different perception of time and space for the dancer: time is marked by the rhythmic ordering of movement and by the duration of the dance, and space is organized around the paths along which the dancer travels or around the shapes made by the body.
Dance can, in fact, create a completely self-contained world for dancers, in which they are capable of physical effort, prowess, and endurance far beyond their normal powers. Ṣūfī dervishes, as an extreme example, can whirl ecstatically for long stretches of time without appearing tired or giddy, and certain Indonesian dancers can strike daggers against their naked chests without causing apparent pain or injury.
This transcendence of the everyday may also be experienced by the spectators. Drawn into the rhythms and patterns created by the dancer’s movements, they may begin to share in the emotions being expressed through them. They may also experience kinesthetically something similar to the physical sensations of the dancer. Kinesthesia, or the awareness of the body through sensations in the joints, muscles, and tendons, rather than through visual perception, not only defines the dancer’s experience of his own body in movement but also the way in which dance exerts its power over the spectators, who not only see it but also feel an echo of the dancer’s movements and rhythms in their own nerve endings.
Problems in defining dance
Self-expression and physical release may thus be seen as the two basic motives for dance. Dance itself, however, takes a wide variety of forms, from simple spontaneous activity to formalized art or from a social gathering where everyone participates to a theatrical event with dancers performing before an audience.
Defining According To Function
Within this broad spectrum of forms, dance fulfills a number of very different functions, including the religious, the military, and the social. Nearly all cultures have had, or still possess, dances that play an important part in religious ritual. There are dances in which the performers and even the spectators work themselves into a trance in order to transcend their ordinary selves and receive the powers of the gods or, as in the case of Indian temple dancers, in which the performers enact the stories of the gods as a way of worshiping them. In some early Christian communities, processions or formal dance patterns formed part of the prayer service.
It is possible to view modern military marches and drilling procedures as descendants of the tribal war and hunting dances that have also been integral to many cultures. War dances, often using weapons and fighting movements, were used throughout history as a way of training soldiers and preparing them emotionally and spiritually for battle. Many hunting tribes performed dances in which the hunters dressed in animal skins and imitated the movements of their prey, thus acquiring the skills of the animal in question and, through sympathetic magic, gaining power over it.
Dance also plays a number of important social roles in all cultures, notably in matters of celebration, courtship, recreation, and entertainment. Courtship dances, for example, allow the dancers to display their vigour and attractiveness and to engage in socially accepted physical contact between the sexes. (The waltz, a relatively modern example of the courtship dance, was banned at certain times because its flagrant contact between the dancers was considered indecent.) Such traditional dances often contain fertility motifs, where mimed (or even actual) motions of sexual intercourse are enacted. One motif in particular, the fertility leap, in which the male dancer lifts the woman as high as he can, is common to many courtship dances, such as the Tyrolean Schuhplattler.
The importance of dance in courtship and social gatherings is probably older than its use as recreation and entertainment. Many scholars have suggested that dance was once an integral part of everyday life, accompanying both practical activities and religious rituals. Only when more complex social and economic structures began to emerge and a leisured class or caste came into existence did people begin to see dance as a source of pleasure, in some way distinct from the most important issues of survival.
As tribal societies gave way to more complex civilizations, many of the earlier ritual forms, such as religious, work, and hunting dances, gradually lost their original significance and developed into recreational folk dances while still retaining many of their original motifs, such as the use of sticks or swords in the English morris dance or the pole in Maypole dances. All kinds of dance in all stages of evolution, however, have retained some importance as means of social cohesion. Dance has also been used as a means of displaying political or social strength and identity. In ancient Greece, for example, citizens were compelled to attend dance dramas partly in order to encourage allegiance to the city-state. An example in the 19th century was Hungary’s purposeful revival of its national dances in order to promote a strong sense of national identity.
Distinguishing Dance From Other Patterned Movement

In all the different dance forms, movement becomes dance through stylization and formal organization, an organization that may be variously determined by an aesthetic idea or by the function of the dance (see below Choreography). There are, however, many kinds of activities involving disciplined and patterned movement that do not fit the category of dance—for example, sports or the behaviour of certain animals—because the principles that govern these activities are not the crucial principles of aesthetic pleasure, self-expression, and entertainment.

Distinguishing between a wrestling match and a choreographed fight in a ballet can illustrate the importance of these principles in defining dance. It is easy to distinguish between a real fight and a fight in a ballet because the former occurs in “real life” and the latter takes place in a theatre and because in the latter the antagonists do not actually want to hurt each other. But in wrestling matches, although the antagonists look as if they are fighting, they are also taking part in a choreographed drama that, like the ballet, is partly appraised on questions of style. In the wrestling match, however, these questions of style are not, as in ballet, central to the event but only incidental. The principle most strongly governing the fighters’ movements is the scoring of points rather than aesthetic appeal or self-expression. For this reason, even choreographed wrestling matches do not fit the same category as dance. (The martial arts of Southeast Asia cannot be as easily distinguished from dance, because the movements of the practitioners are expected to be as refined and as graceful as those in dance.)
Figure skating, particularly in its contemporary form of ice dance competition, is more difficult to distinguish from dance, because both aesthetic and expressive qualities are important. But at the same time, there are certain rules that have to be followed more stringently in ice skating than in dance, and once again the governing principle is the competitive display of skills rather than the enjoyment of movement for its own sake. (Dance competitions in which performers are given points present an even more difficult case of distinguishing art from sport, but, to the extent that it is governed by the principle of scoring points, dance competition cannot be defined as art.)
Marches and processions present another difficulty of classification. Some involve patterned groupings of people and a disciplined, stylized movement such as the military goose step, and the participants may feel and express powerful emotions. Such movements also may be accompanied by highly theatrical elements, such as colourful costumes, props, and music, that often accompany dance. But in a march the movement itself is so subordinate to other considerations—such as the mobilization of large numbers of people or the playing of music—that it cannot be regarded as dance.
Defining According To Intent
An important factor distinguishing dance from other patterned movement is that of intention. The flight patterns made by swarms of bees or the elaborate courtship rituals of certain birds may be more pleasing to watch and more elaborately organized than the simple, untutored dancing movements of a child. Such patterned movements, however, are not referred to, except analogously, as dances because they are rooted in involuntary genetic behaviour necessary for the survival of the species. In other words, they are not intended as entertainment, aesthetic pleasure, or self-expression. Indeed, it may be argued that for an activity to count as dance, the dancer must be at least capable of distinguishing it as such or must intend it as such. (In a duet by the American choreographer Paul Taylor, two men simply remained motionless on stage for four minutes. Yet the piece was accepted as dance because of its aesthetic context: it was in a theatre and Taylor was known as an experimental choreographer. In addition, the spectators knew that it was intended as a piece that either was dance or was about dance.)
Even when an activity is clearly identified as dancing, there are frequent debates as to whether it is part of the art of dance. Any art form evolves through strong aesthetic principles, and the three main principles governing the art of dance have been discussed above. But of these three principles some may be recognized by one group and not by another. For example, classical ballet reached its zenith in Russia in the late 19th century: Its technique was perfectly developed, and its dancers were acknowledged virtuosos. But a number of choreographers, reacting against the dominant aesthetics of classical ballet, argued that it was simply empty acrobatics and not dance at all because it concentrated on showing the skills of individual dancers and failed to express any significant ideas or emotions. Similarly, when Martha Graham, the pioneer choreographer in American modern dance, first presented her works in the late 1920s, audiences found them so unlike the ballets that they were used to that they refused to acknowledge them as dance (see below Theatre dance: Modern dance). The debate goes on over the works of today’s avant-garde choreographers, and the same is true for one culture’s perceptions of another culture’s dance. When Europeans first encountered the highly sophisticated Middle Eastern dance form raqṣ sharqī, they perceived it as erotic display and called it the belly dance.

Dance as dramatic expression or abstract form

The Debate In The West
In Western theatre-dance traditions, notably ballet and modern dance, the most recurrent clash of principles has been over the question of expression. Theatre dance generally falls into two categories: that which is purely formal, or dedicated to the perfection of style and display of skill, and that which is dramatic, or dedicated to the expression of emotion, character, and narrative action. In the early French and Italian ballets of the 16th and 17th centuries, dance was only a part of huge spectacles involving singing, recitation, instrumental music, and elaborate stage design. Although such spectacles were loosely organized around a story or theme, the dance movement itself was largely formal and ornamental, with only a very limited range of mime gestures to convey the action. As dance itself became more virtuosic and ballet began to emerge as a proper theatrical art form, the technical prowess of the dancers became the major focus of interest. Ballet developed into a miscellaneous collection of short pieces inserted, almost at random, into the middle of an opera with no other function than to show off the dancers’ skills. In Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets (1760; Letters on Dancing and Ballets) Jean-Georges Noverre, the great French choreographer and ballet master, deplored this development. He argued that dance is meaningless unless it has some dramatic and expressive content and that movement should become more natural and accommodate a wider range of expression: “I think . . . this art has remained in its infancy only because its effects have been limited, like those of fireworks designed simply to gratify the eyes. . . . No one has suspected its power of speaking to the heart.”
During the great Romantic period of ballet in the first half of the 19th century, Noverre’s dream of the ballet d’action was fulfilled as ballet, now a completely independent art form, occupied itself with dramatic themes and emotions. But by the late 19th century the importance attached to virtuosity at the expense of expressiveness had again become an issue. In 1914 the Russian-born choreographer Michel Fokine argued for reform on lines similar to those of Noverre, asserting that “the art of the older ballet turned its back on life and . . . shut itself up in a narrow circle of traditions.” Fokine insisted that “dancing and mimetic gesture have no meaning in a ballet unless they serve as an expression of its dramatic action, and they must not be used as a mere divertissement or entertainment, having no connection with the scheme of the whole ballet.”
Outside the ballet companies, exponents of modern dance in Europe and the United States were also arguing that ballet expressed nothing of the inner life and emotions, for its stories were childish fantasies and its technique was too artificial to be expressive. Martha Graham, whose commitment to dramatic content was so strong that she often referred to her dance works as dramas, created a new style of movement to express what she saw as the psychological and social condition of modern man: “Life today is nervous, sharp, and zig-zag. It often stops in mid-air. That is what I aim for in my dances. The old balletic forms could not give it voice.”
In the decades between the world wars, Graham, Mary Wigman, and Doris Humphrey established the school of Expressionist modern dance, which was characterized by serious subject matter and highly dramatic movement. Other choreographers, such as Merce Cunningham and George Balanchine, argued that such close concern with dramatic expression could hamper the development of dance as an art form. Balanchine argued that “the ballet is such a rich art form that it should not be an illustrator of even the most interesting, even the most meaningful literary primary source. The ballet will speak for itself and about itself.” The works of these choreographers emphasized formal structure and development of choreography rather than plot, character, or emotion. Partly as a result of their influence, the “abstract,” or plotless, ballet became popular among choreographers during the decades after World War II.
Dance As A Nonverbal Language
At the centre of much debate have been the questions how dance can express emotions and actions in any detailed way and whether it can be thought of as a kind of language. Cultural conventions partly determine the limits of expression. For example, the classical dance of India has more than 4,000 mudras, or gestures through which the dancer portrays complex actions, emotions, and relationships; these gestures are comprehensible to the audience because they have always been at the centre of Indian life and cultural traditions. In classical ballet, however, the vocabulary of mimed gesture is quite small and is comprehensible to only a few informed spectators, thus considerably limiting its expressive range. Referring to the practical impossibility of communicating, through dance, the complex plots and relationships between characters that are common in the spoken theatre, Balanchine once remarked, “There are no mothers-in-law in ballet.”
While dance cannot communicate specific events or ideas, it is a universal language that can communicate emotions directly and sometimes more powerfully than words. The French poet Stéphane Mallarmé declared that the dancer, “writing with her body, . . . suggests things which the written work could express only in several paragraphs of dialogue or descriptive prose.” Because dance movements are closely related to the gestures of ordinary life, the emotions they express can be immediately understood, partly through a visual appreciation of the gesture and partly through a sympathetic kinesthetic response. Thus, when a dancer leaps, the spectators understand it as a sign of exhilaration, and they feel something of the lifting and tightening sensations that excitement produces in the body. In the same way, if a dancer’s body is twisted or contracted, they feel an echo of the knotted sensation of pain.
Of course, even the gestures of ordinary life are inherited from cultural conventions. A smile or a wave of the hand can, in certain non-Western cultures, be taken as a sign of aggression rather than welcome. In the same way, how spectators interpret dance movements depends on the context in which those movements occur and on the particular spectator who interprets them. A fall may signify despair in one context, or to one person, and a sinking into ecstasy in another.
The distinction between abstract and expressive dance is also a highly artificial one, becoming a clear distinction in critical theory but certainly not in actual performance. In even the most dramatic and mimetic dance, the movement is highly stylized and subjected to an abstract aesthetic principle. The structure of the piece is determined as much by formal considerations as by the narrative events. On the other hand, even the most abstract work expresses some emotion or character relationship simply because it is performed by people rather than neutral objects, and often the most highly elaborate dance pattern has some representational function.
Changes in attitude toward dance

Critics have argued the question of abstraction and expression largely in relation to theatre dance and also on the assumption that dance is a serious art form. Within recent history, however, this assumption was not always held. In late 19th-century Europe, outside Russia and Denmark, dance was generally regarded as mere entertainment with little aesthetic value. Attitudes to dance both as an art form and as a social activity have, in fact, varied dramatically throughout history. In cultures where it had, or still possesses, religious significance, it is treated with great respect. The ancient Greeks also took dance very seriously, both as an integral part of their drama—which had strong political and social significance—and as part of education. Plato wrote in the Laws that “to sing well and to dance well is to be well educated. Noble dances should confer on the student not only health and agility and beauty, but also goodness of the soul and a well-balanced mind.” Aristotle believed that dance was useful for “purging the young soul of unseemly emotions and preparing for the worthy enjoyment of leisure.”
The Romans generally looked down on dance as effeminate and decadent. The historian Sallust remarked of a citizen’s wife that “she played and danced more gracefully than a respectable woman should.” The early Christian leaders took a similar view and tried to repress pagan dance customs wherever they could. This action has been attributed to the Christian belief that the body, being the unworthy vessel of the soul, should not be indulged by any kind of sensual pleasure or display. The attitude was not completely dominant, though, and some leaders felt that sober and decent dances could play an important role in religious worship. In the 4th century St. Basil asked, “Could there be anything more blessed than to imitate on earth the ring-dance of the angels?” Processional, circle, and line dances were included in many church services and can still be seen in some services in Toledo and Seville, Spain.
At the time of the Renaissance, when the hold of the church on secular life loosened, dance became popular at court (the church had never been successful at repressing dance among the peasants). It became an essential part of every courtier’s education to be able to dance and move gracefully, and this was a time, too, when many performed in amateur court ballets. In England dancing was so popular among all classes that foreign ambassadors spoke of the people as the “dancing English.”
During the 17th century the Puritans were more effective at stamping out the most exuberant and pagan of English dance customs, though among the upper classes it was still considered proper for young children to learn to dance, in order, as the philosopher John Locke put it, to instill “a becoming confidence” in them. In America the hold of the Puritans was even stronger, and many leaders frowned upon any kind of dance, recreational or otherwise, as idle and lascivious. Others saw it as a necessary part of education, providing that it was sober and serious. The most prominent exception to pious disapproval of dance was the Shaker sect, which, while prospering in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, developed choreographed dances as part of its worship service. The dances often represented quite complex religious themes. One figure, the wheel within a wheel, which was made up of circles turning in alternate directions around a central chorus of singers, represented the all-embracing nature of the Gospel; the outer ring of dancers represented the ultimate circle of truth, while the central chorus symbolized the harmony and perfection of God that is at the centre of life.
Gradually, dance as a means of physical education and entertainment became more popular in the United States. Folk dancing and social dancing were encouraged, and by the 20th century theatre dance, too, began to lose its disreputable taint.
Certainly in the Western world, dance as an art form has never been as popular as it is today, with a wide range of choreographic styles and genres attracting large audiences. As a form of recreation it has also undergone a massive revival, as can be seen in the resurgence of interest in swing and ballroom dancing and in the urban dance styles of contemporary music videos. Moreover, many folk dances, nearly lost to a broader public in the 20th century, have been carefully revived and are widely enjoyed; Irish dancing, Balkan dancing, and English country dancing were but a few of the popular participatory dances evident at the turn of the 21st century. In Asia and Africa many traditional dances have been transferred from the community, where they were dying out, to the theatre. This has brought about a rapid growth in their popularity, both in their places of origin and in the West, where they attract large audiences and are also studied.
Components of the dance

The dancer

Physical Requirements
Dancers are not just performing artists; their bodies are also the instruments through which the art is created. The quality of this art, therefore, necessarily depends on the physical qualities and skills that dancers possess. The stronger and more flexible a dancer’s body, the more capable it is of a wide range of movement. Nearly all professional dancers start training at a young age in order to shape and develop their bodies correctly. Strength is built up in the right muscles, for example, and the bone-connecting ligaments on which flexibility of the joints is so dependent are lengthened early before they begin to harden.
As well as strength and mobility, a good dancer must also possess great coordination (the ability to work different parts of the body together), a highly developed kinesthetic awareness (in order to know and control the position and state of the body), control over weight and balance in motion, a developed awareness of space, a strong sense of rhythm, and an appreciation of music. Particularly in dramatic dance, the dancer must be able to project movement clearly and make its expressive qualities intelligible to the audience. Grace, fluidity, and harmony of body are also frequently desired in the dancer, as is physical beauty, but these are subjective qualities that differ from one culture to another and change according to fashion. (Today’s physical ideal of the ballerina—long-limbed and slender—is quite different from the late 19th-century preference for a more rounded figure.)
The Importance Of Training
Though modern avant-garde choreographers sometimes work with untrained dancers to take advantage of the qualities of natural, untutored movement, most dancers in the West are trained either in a strict technique based on classical ballet or in techniques introduced by the 20th-century modern-dance choreographers Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham. (Other kinds of dance, such as jazz or tap, are usually taught in conjunction with these techniques.) Training generally begins early, between 8 and 12 years of age for girls and 14 for boys, although some ballet dancers and many more modern dancers begin later. Ballet training closely follows the rules published in 1828 by the Italian dancing master Carlo Blasis in his Code of Terpsichore. Blasis advocated at least three hours of dance classes a day, involving exercises that progressively developed different parts of the body.
Daily classes are necessary not only to mold the body and develop the necessary physical skills but also to maintain the body in its proper condition and prevent injury. Many dance movements make strenuous and unnatural demands on the joints, muscles, and tendons, and it is easy to strain or damage them if the body is not properly maintained. Some bodies are more suitable for training than others, and in the West many aspiring dancers undergo extensive medical scrutiny to ensure that they have no weaknesses or disabilities, such as a weak or crooked spine, that would make them unfit for dancing.
The exercises involved in a dancer’s training depend on the style of the dance. Ballet dancers have to work hard to attain a full turnout (the outward rotation of the legs in the hip socket so that the heels touch back to back and the feet form a 180° angle), which enables them to lift their legs high in the air in jumps or arabesques. While ballet dancers rarely use the torso, African dancers and certain modern dancers have to be extraordinarily supple in the torso and pelvis in order to execute the ripples, twists, and percussive thrusts that their particular dances require. Indian classical dancers, while developing great strength and flexibility in the legs, must also achieve great control over the face and neck muscles and flexibility and control in the joints and muscles of the hands. This is necessary to execute their elaborate mudras, conventional symbolic gestures, with accuracy and grace.
Differences Among Dancers
However rigorous and uniform training may be, each dancer always has a personal style of dancing. Certain skills come more easily to some dancers than to others: one may be an excellent jumper, while another may have exquisite control and balance in slow, sustained dance passages. The same choreography may also look completely different when executed by two different bodies. Thus, a dancer with very long limbs will make high leg extensions look exaggeratedly long while appearing slightly awkward in fast, intricate footwork. Another dancer may have a great deal of energy and speed but be unable to produce a sustained and beautiful line in held positions.
Finally, dancers vary a great deal in the way they articulate and project movement. Some dancers move in a way that is tense, energetic, and even aggressive in its attack, while others appear soft and fluid. Some phrase their movements so that every detail is sharp and clear; others so that one element flows into another. Some move exactly in time with the phrasing of the music; others phrase their movement slightly independently of it. One dancer may produce movements that are dramatically charged and expressive, while another may be cool and detached, concentrating on technical perfection. Such qualities may vary so markedly that certain dance roles become inextricably connected to the dancers for whom they were created, for example, Anna Pavlova’s Dying Swan, created by Michel Fokine in 1907, or Rudolf Nureyev and Margot Fonteyn’s Marguerite and Armand, created by Frederick Ashton in 1963.
In modern dance the dancer may be highly esteemed for individual style and technique but is generally expected to submit his own personality to the demands of the choreography. Some of the works by the American choreographer Alwin Nikolais went so far as to conceal the dancer altogether under a panoply of props, costumes, and lighting projections.
The display of individual style is inevitable in theatre dances such as ballet and modern dance, where trained professionals perform for the pleasure of an audience. Some participatory dances also allow individual dancers to display their talents, as in ballroom or disco dancing, but in many folk dances, particularly those derived from ancient rituals, the sense of unity within the group usually outweighs the importance attached to any one dancer. In primitive religious dance such unity tends to be even more strictly observed. The point of the dance is not the display of the dancer’s or choreographer’s talents but the perfection of the ritual.
From Amateur To Professional
Exacting standards and rigorous early training are common where dance has become an art performed before an audience. Such scholars as the German musicologist Curt Sachs have pointed out that in very early cultures, where dance was something in which everyone in the tribe participated, dancers were not regarded as specialists to be singled out and trained because of their particular skills or beauty. Once religious worship (the original occasion for dance) developed into ritual, however, it became important for dancers to be as skilled as possible, for if the ritual was not performed well and accurately, the prayers or magic would not succeed. Dancers were thus selected for special training, which may have taken place either through the family or through skilled individuals who lived and taught outside the community. The dancer’s performance now became subject to the most rigorous judgments; indeed, Sachs mentions a tribe on the island of Santa Maria in the New Hebrides (present-day Vanuatu) where, it was said, “old men used to stand by with bows and arrows and shoot at every dancer who made a mistake.”
Frequently, in religious dances, the dancer is subjected not only to intense physical training but also to spiritual discipline. Such dancers have often formed a special caste set apart from the rest of the community. In the religious hula dances of Hawaii, the dancers observed important taboos and took part in sacred rites in order to be fit to dance. The traditional religious dancers of India also had to remain pure; they were regarded as brides of the gods and were taught by masters of the highest caste. (Frequently such practices became corrupt, and female temple dancers were also paid to perform in the houses of the wealthy, thus acquiring a reputation for sexual license and promiscuity.)
In Europe professional dance was for many centuries restricted to joculators, wandering bands of jugglers, dancers, poets, and musicians, who were generally regarded as social inferiors. The early ballets were performed almost exclusively by amateur dancers at court (though instructed by professional dancing masters) for whom dance was a means of demonstrating their own grace, dignity, and good manners. The comic, or burlesque, parts alone were performed by professionals, who were not so concerned about their dignity. It was Louis XIV of France, himself an enthusiastic amateur dancer when young, who realized that the art of dance could not advance unless dancers were properly trained professionals. To provide standards for this training, he set up the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661, merging it with the Académie Royale de Musique in 1672. (The Académie survives to the present day as the Paris Opéra Ballet.) Through the work of masters such as Pierre Beauchamp, first director of the Académie Royale de Danse, the main principles of dance technique were codified, and dancers rapidly reached much greater heights of virtuosity. Before Louis’s innovations, the split between court dancing, with its carefully cultivated style and patterns of movement, and the less refined peasant dances was already marked, but from this point the gap between professional and amateur dance in Europe really came into being.

Basic steps and formations

Ballet And Modern Dance
The style and movement vocabulary of classical ballet is rooted in the five turned-out positions of the feet: (1) heels touching and feet forming a straight line; (2) heels apart and feet forming a straight line; (3) one foot in front of the other with the heel against the instep; (4) feet apart, one in front of the other; and (5) one foot in front of the other with the heel against the joint of the big toe. Each ballet position has a corresponding port de bras, or position of the arms and hands.
Movements may be grouped into several broad types. First, there are quick, earthbound, linking steps—for example, the pas de bourrée, a flowing step that may be executed in any direction, and the glissade, a gliding step in which the dancer stretches one foot to the side, front, or back, then stretches the other and brings it in to meet the first.
Second, there are jumps, which may be low and light, with the feet battu (“beaten,” or crossed rapidly in front of and behind each other several times in midair). In the entrechat, the dancer takes off from the fifth position into a vertical jump. In an assemblé the dancer brushes one foot out to the side, front, or back while springing off of the other; the two feet then come together in midair (where they may be beaten), and the dancer lands in the fifth position. The pas de chat (“step of the cat”) is a jump to the side, with first one foot and then the other drawn up beneath the dancer’s body before landing in the fifth position. Higher, more vigorous jumps include the grand jeté, in which the dancer throws one leg forward into the air, hovers with the legs stretched to the front and back, and then lands on the front leg, either holding a position such as arabesque or attitude or else closing the back foot into the fifth position.
Arabesque and attitude are positions in which the dancer stands on one leg. In arabesque the other leg (called the working leg) is stretched straight out to the back; in attitude, it is bent and may be extended to either the front or the back.
Turns include the pirouette, which is executed on one leg and on the spot, with the working leg held in a variety of positions, such as attitude, stretched out to the side (à la seconde), or with the foot held just above the ankle or at the knee. In the fouetté en tournant the working leg is whipped straight out to the side and then bent in, the foot being brought back to the knee of the supporting leg at each revolution. The piqué is a traveling turn, the dancer stepping out onto the supporting leg before turning on it (see piqué work).
All of these steps may be performed in numerous enchaînements, or combinations, and with the dancers grouped in many different formations. In classical ballet the formations tend to be symmetrical, with circles or lines framing the main dancers at centre stage. Adagio, or partner work, is crucial to ballet; the man may support the woman in a series of pirouettes or balances and may lift her in many ways. As a general rule, the pas de deux, solo, and group dance alternate fairly regularly, and in the classical pas de deux the two dancers generally separate for individual variations before coming together in a final coda.
Modern dance uses many of the steps and positions of classical dance but often in a very different style. The legs may be turned in and the feet flexed or held loosely rather than pointed (see below Types of dance: modern dance). There is much greater use of the torso, which may twist, bend, or crouch, and more rolls and falls, in which the dancer works on or close to the floor. Much postmodern dance uses ordinary movements, such as running or walking, as well as simple swinging, spiraling, or stretching movements that involve the entire body.
Folk Dance
Many of the steps used in folk dance are like basic versions of ballet steps: small hops and skips; running steps similar to the pas de bourée; and more vigorous steps such as the gallop, in which one leg slides to the front or side and the other leg is brought to meet it in the air with a small spring before the dancer lands on it, ready to slide the original leg forward again. Also common are simple turns, where the dancer pivots on one leg, and lifts, where the man catches his partner around the waist and lifts her into the air. Arm and body movements are usually simple and relaxed, with hands held at the waist or hanging at the sides and the body swaying in rhythm to the movement. In some dances the performers remain separate; in others, they hold hands, link arms, or clasp one another around the waist. Steps are usually repeated in long series, but they often follow quite complex and strictly ordered floor patterns—such as the figure eight, in which the dancers weave around one another. Whether single or in pairs, dancers are usually grouped in circles (often two concentric circles moving at the same time) or lines. Within these groupings there are many specific formations; for example, four or more dancers hold hands and move in a circle, or dancers join hands to form an arch under which the others can pass.
Social Dance
Except for display, social dances are rarely performed in any strict formation, although dancers may sometimes form themselves spontaneously into lines or circles. Ballroom dances are categorized instead by their step patterns, rhythms, and tempos. Some of the best-known social dances are the waltz, fox-trot, tango, rumba, samba, and cha-cha. The fox-trot is danced in moderate time, with two steps forward and two steps to the side executed in a slow-slow-quick-quick rhythm. The waltz is a three-step dance, and in the cha-cha five steps are executed in a four-beat measure with a slow-slow-quick-quick-slow rhythm.
The basic step patterns are elaborated by different turns, the dancers pivoting on one foot, as in the waltz, or changing direction while they walk, as in the fox-trot. There are also different kinds of walk—for example, the chassé, in which one foot slides to the front, side, or back, the other slides to meet it, and then the first slides forward again. In many ballroom dances the man and woman remain in the same hold throughout, facing each other or turned slightly to the side. The head may turn and the body sway or bend in response to the rhythm and footwork. In the cha-cha the man and woman may also dance separately. With more freedom to move the body and arms, the hips may sway with the steps and the arms swing rhythmically across the torso.
The basic steps of the original rock and roll dances are performed in the traditional ballroom hold. Dancers may then “break” in order to perform different lifts and turns. For example, the man may hold onto the woman’s hand and pivot her under his arm, the woman may jump up with her legs straddling the man’s waist, or the man may catch hold of the woman’s shoulders and slide her between his legs.
In most later rock dances, from the twist to disco, it is much rarer for people to dance as partners. There is also a greater stress on free arm and body movements than on set patterns of steps. Disco enthusiasts may incorporate elements of jazz, modern dance, and gymnastics into their repertoire, executing high kicks, turns, and even backflips.
Choreography is the art of making dances, the gathering and organization of movement into order and pattern. Most recent works of Western theatre dance have been created by single choreographers, who have been regarded as the authors and owners of their works in a way comparable to writers, composers, and painters. Most social and recreational dances, on the other hand, are products of long evolution, involving innovations that groups of people or anonymous individuals have brought to traditional forms. This evolutionary process is also typical of much non-Western choreography, where both the form and steps of dances are handed down from one generation to another and subject only to gradual and partial change. Even in cultures where it is common for dancers and dancing masters to create their own variations on existing dances, as among the Hopi in northeastern Arizona, it may not be traditional to honour an individual as a particular dance’s creator.
Choreographers’ Motives And Methods
When choreographers set out to create new works, or possibly rework traditional dances, their impulses or motivations for doing so vary widely. It may be that a particular dance has a function to fulfill, such as marking a celebration, embellishing an opera, or praying for rain. It may be that the piece has no specific function and that the choreographer is simply responding to an outside stimulus—a piece of music that has suggested a structure or movement, perhaps, or a painting, or a theme from literature, or possibly a particular dancer that the choreographer is interested in working with. Or the stimulus may be the choreographer’s desire to express a particular concept or emotion or a fascination with a particular choreographic idea. Such stimuli may, of course, influence the work even if the choreographer is producing it for a specific purpose, though, as with any artist, it is rare that a choreographer’s motives and intentions can be clearly analyzed—particularly during the actual working process.
The methods by which different choreographers create their work also vary. Some work closely with the dancers from the beginning, trying out ideas and taking suggestions from the dancers themselves before pulling all of the material together. Others start with clear ideas about the shape of the piece and its content even before going into the studio. The 19th-century choreographer Marius Petipa used small models to work out the groupings of his dances. The amount that any choreographer can do without dancers is limited, because the notation of dance is relatively undeveloped. Whereas a composer can write a complete symphony without meeting the orchestra that is going to play it, dance notation is mostly used in recording rather than creating dances (see below Dance notation).
The Three-Phase Choreographic Process
The choreographic process may be divided for analytical purposes (the divisions are never distinct in practice) into three phases: gathering together the movement material, developing movements into dance phrases, and creating the final structure of the work.
Gathering the movement material
The way in which the choreographer accumulates movement material depends on the tradition in which he works. In certain dance forms it may be simply a question of creating variations within a traditional pattern of movements. For example, dancing masters in the Italian courts of the 14th and 15th centuries simply invented variations on existing dances and published them in dance manuals bearing their own names. Even today many ballet choreographers use as raw material for their pieces the traditional steps and enchaînements that dancers learn in class. The same is true for many of today’s performers of Indian or Middle Eastern dance forms; they may not strictly follow the traditional structure and sequence of movements passed down to them, but they remain faithful to their characteristic styles, retaining the traditional quality of movement and not introducing steps or movements widely different from the original.
In modern Western forms choreographers have worked less within established traditions, creating instead a vocabulary and style of movement to suit their own personal visions. But even in the work of pioneering choreographers, it is possible to trace major influences. Martha Graham’s early work, in the 1920s, for example, was strongly influenced by the American Indian and Southeast Asian dance forms used by her mentor, Ruth St. Denis. Merce Cunningham’s technique owed a great deal to classical ballet. Even Vaslav Nijinsky’s ballet Le Sacre du printemps (“The Rite of Spring”), which audiences at its first performance in 1913 regarded as a complete break with known dance forms, may have been influenced by the rhythmic-movement exercises of the music teacher Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and by the interest in archaic dance forms already generated by Isadora Duncan and Michel Fokine.
Although each choreographer draws material from diverse sources and often employs contrasting styles, most dance works of a single choreographer show a characteristic style of movement. Dances, however, are rarely if ever a loose collection of isolated movements. One of the most important features of any choreographer’s style is the way in which movement material is connected into dance phrases.
Developing movements into phrases
A phrase, loosely speaking, is a series of movements bound together by a physical impulse or line of energy and having a discernible beginning and end. (A rough analogy can be made with the way a singer phrases a multiplicity of notes within a single breath.) Many factors work to make the spectator perceive a series of movements as a phrase. The first is the recognition of some kind of logical connection between the movements that prevents them from appearing arbitrary and isolated. It may be that one movement flows easily and naturally into another within the phrase and that there are no awkward transitions or that there is some clearly visible pattern to the movement (such as the basic three-step phrase in the waltz). Rhythm is a significant factor, and movements are often clearly linked by a recognizable pattern of accents. A movement’s accent is measured by its force and duration; thus, a hard, sharp movement has a strong accent, while a soft, gradual movement has a weak one. Even a single movement, such as a head roll, may begin with a strong accent and end with a weak one. In phrases that have perfectly regular rhythm, the strong and weak accents recur in the same sequence and always over the same duration of time.
Dance phrases vary both in length and shape. A phrase may begin with a very forceful movement, or maximum output of energy, that gradually comes to a pause, or it may have its climax somewhere in the middle or at the end. Other dance phrases, in contrast, have an even distribution of energy. These factors determine the way in which the phrase is perceived by, and the effect that it produces on, the spectator. Long, repetitive, evenly paced phrases produce a hypnotic effect, while a series of short phrases with strong climaxes appears nervous and dramatic. One of the distinguishing features of Graham’s early style was her elimination of linking steps and fluid transitions between movements, so that many of her dance phrases were short, stark, and forceful.
Once a phrase has been constructed, it can be built onto in many different ways. Perhaps the simplest ways are repetition, in which the same phrase is simply repeated, and accumulation, in which the original phrase is repeated with a new phrase added on each time. Separate dance phrases may also be repeated according to a pattern, one of the most basic being the alternation of two phrases, and another being the passing of one or more phrases from one dancer to another in canonic form. Material within a dance phrase can also be developed in a number of ways to create new material. The simplest of these is a straightforward reversal of the sequence of movements in the phrase, but more complex principles of motif and development and of theme and variation are also common. The principle of theme and variation works on the same initial dance phrase being repeated in a number of different ways; for example, with different numbers of people, at different speeds, with different styles of movement (jerky or smooth), or with different dramatic qualities (happy or sad). In motif and development, material from within the phrase is developed in new ways, for example, by embellishing it with other movements (the same jump but with different arm movements), by imitating it on a different scale (the same jump, only bigger or smaller), or by fragmenting it and repeating only small details.
Creating the final structure
The third phase of the choreographic process, creating the overall structure of the dance, may be influenced by a variety of considerations, including the purpose of the dance. If the work is to be a narrative piece, the plot will obviously determine the way in which the dance material is to be structured. It may have to follow a strict succession of events, create characters in a particular order, and bring the drama to climax at the proper moments. Similarly, if the dance forms part of a ritual, the material may have to strictly follow sanctioned form and procedure.
The music determines the structure of a dance work, too—by its length, its arrangement of fast and slow movements, and its treatment of theme. Many of George Balanchine’s works follow the structure of the accompanying score very closely; this is reflected in pieces with such titles as Symphony in Three Movements (1972), set to music by Igor Stravinsky, or Concerto barocco (1940), set to music by Johann Sebastian Bach. Many dance forms actually have the same names as musical forms—such as the rondo, which, by repeating an initial movement in alternation with various contrasting movements, follows the same scheme as its musical counterpart.
A dance’s purpose and its musical score are outside influences on its structure. But structure may also be organic; in other words, an entire dance piece may arise from a continuous development of movement ideas, each movement working off of the movement that came before. British choreographer Richard Alston’s Doublework (1978), for example, derived its structure from the exploration of the duet form and the repetition of dance material in different contexts. Other movement ideas that may develop in this way are the use of contrasting sections of movement (a section of fast, energetic dancing followed by a slow, meditative passage), the deployment of different numbers and configurations of dancers (a solo followed by an ensemble followed by a trio, and so on), and the manipulation of different floor patterns or different areas of space (a section of leaping movements contrasted with movement executed very close to the ground).
Movement usually develops organically even when the overall structure of the piece is imposed by a plot or piece of music. In the case of narrative ballets, choreographic ideas may develop into formal motifs while still retaining the ability to represent certain actions or situations in the plot. For example, in Ashton’s La Fille mal gardée (1960) ribbons represent the lovers’ emotions; tied into a love knot, they signify their passion, and transformed into a skipping rope and cat’s cradle, they show their innocence. But at the same time, the ribbons are used in a purely formal way, embellishing certain movements or creating elaborate patterns that can be enjoyed solely for their beauty. In even the most dramatic ballets the representation of emotions and events is heavily stylized, and the ordering of the plot is determined as much by aesthetic as by dramatic logic. Many narrative ballets, like those of Petipa, contain sections of nondramatic dance that develop according to the kind of formal choreographic principles described above.
Finally, the structure of a dance reflects the tradition in which it is created and performed. Ballets in the 19th-century classical tradition tend to last an entire evening and are divided into several acts, with the tragic death or happy marriage of the protagonists occurring at the end. Modern dances are often much shorter, and a single program may include up to a half-dozen pieces. In a performance of the Indian dance form bharata natyam, sections of dramatic and abstract dance follow one another in strict succession for a period lasting up to four and a half hours, while in the kathakali dance form of southwestern India, a single performance of alternating dance and music may go on for 16 hours.
Dance notation
Since dance is a performing art, the survival of any dance work depends either on its being preserved through tradition or on its being written down in some form. Where tradition is continuous and uninterrupted, changes in style and interpretation (inevitable when different dancers perform the same material) may be corrected and the dance preserved in its original form. But when a tradition is broken (if, for instance, the cultural traditions of one ethnic group encroach on those of another), then dances may not only change radically but may even disappear. For this reason methods of recording dance are important in the preservation of its history.
Evidence of dance records dates to the ancient Egyptians, who used hieroglyphs to represent dance movements. In India the earliest book discussing dance, the Natya-sastra (“Treatise on the Dramatic Arts”; variously dated from the 2nd century bc to the 3rd century ad), still survives. This work, which is sacred in Indian culture, codifies dance into a series of rules determining the gestures used to depict different themes and emotions. The bharata natyam, a classical dance form based on this treatise, is a good example of a dance tradition that has survived unbroken for many centuries. It only began to founder during the 19th century, partly because Westerners and Indians alike began to deplore its associations with prostitution, but was saved from disappearing altogether when it was developed into a concert form at the beginning of the 20th century. One reason for the long survival of the bharata natyam was its importance in religious ceremonies of Hinduism; in addition, when Indian dances were rarely being performed and were in danger of being lost or of degenerating beyond recognition, the Natya-sastra provided a record of traditional principles and styles for their later revival. Even today, not all dance instructors are familiar with these principles, and purists still fear that certain dances are in danger of disappearing or being completely distorted.
Prominent Notation Methods
The absence in the West of any reliable form of notation until the 20th century resulted in a relative paucity of dance traditions when compared to other art forms. While the music, art, and literature of many centuries past is available today, either in the original or in a reproduced form, there is no complete record of any of the ballets choreographed before the 19th century. Even those works that form the backbone of ballet’s classical tradition (Swan Lake, Giselle, and The Sleeping Beauty, for example) have not survived in forms that fully resemble the original choreography.
During the Renaissance dances were recorded through a simple form of verbal abbreviation, with one letter standing for each individual step—as in B for branle or R for révérence. This method was adequate because the dances of that time were simple and the individual steps were well known. By the 17th century the increasingly complex floor patterns of certain dances, particularly those of the court ballets, led to the emergence of track-drawing systems, the most sophisticated of which was published in 1700 by Raoul-Auger Feuillet in his Chorégraphie, ou l’art de décrire la danse (“Choreography, or the Art of Describing the Dance”). Feuillet’s work recorded foot positions and combinations of steps as well as floor patterns, but it was unable to register movements in the upper part of the body.
Subsequent ballet masters turned to a form of notation using stick figures, the first of which was La Sténochorégraphie (“The Art of Writing Dance”), published in 1852 by the French dancer and choreographer Arthur Saint-Léon. The disadvantage of this system was that it could not record the timing or musical coordination of movements, so that later attempts to produce a system were based on musical notes that would give not only anatomical detail but also the duration of the movement. In the 19th century the most advanced system of this kind was published in Alphabet des mouvements du corps humain (1892; “Alphabet of Movements of the Human Body”), by Vladimir Stepanov, a dancer at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. Stepanov’s system was used to record many ballets in the Mariinsky’s repertoire; the recordings were the basis of subsequent reconstructions of those ballets by the Sadler’s Wells Ballet in London.
Stepanov’s system still had many disadvantages, one of the most significant being that it was strongly geared toward ballet and could not accommodate the wider range of movements being developed through modern dance techniques. In 1928 Rudolf Laban, a Hungarian dancer, teacher, and choreographer, developed a complex series of principles for analyzing the full range of human movement. His system for recording movements in dance—widely known as Labanotation—had the advantage of being able to record not only the positions of the body and the pattern of the steps but also the way in which movements should be executed (i.e., whether they should be relaxed or forceful and where the accent of the movement should lie).
Choreology, developed by Joan and Rudolf Benesh in 1955, is based on a more clearly visual rather than symbolic form of notation. It is written on a five-line stave, recording the dancer’s position as viewed from behind. The top line shows the position of the top of the head; the second, the shoulders; the third, the waist; the fourth, the knees; and the fifth, the feet. Special symbols such as lines, dots, and crosses indicate what each part of the body is doing—for example, whether a limb is straight or flexed and in which direction (to the side or front or in a circle) each part is moving. Other symbols show the quality or dynamics of the movement, its rhythm and accent, and the group formations of the dancers. In 1958 Noa Eshkol and Abraham Wachmann proposed a mathematical system in which movement (of the joints, for example) was analyzed anatomically, in degrees of circular movement in either positive or negative directions, with positions of the body being fixed in relation to two coordinates.
Video recording is more readily accessible than written notation, though it fails to represent the three-dimensional nature of dance and is unable to record movements when one dancer is concealed behind another. It may be useful when used in tandem with some form of written notation, particularly as it can provide a record of how individual dancers interpret particular roles.
Difficulties Of Notation
The problem with all systems of dance notation is that few choreographers—and even fewer dancers—are literate in them. As currently practiced, dance notation is mostly used only for the recording, rather than the creating and learning, of dances. Given the present method of creating in the studio, it is impossible for a choreographer to take an overall view of the work; it is difficult to make changes or to experiment in the way a composer can, because the choreographer is limited by the relatively short period of time allowed for rehearsals and by practical considerations such as the dancers’ availability and fatigue.
Even the best system of notation cannot succeed completely, because it cannot alter the fundamental nature of dance. Like any other performing art, dance is essentially ephemeral, existing only at the time of its performance. It can never be properly recorded or preserved, since the way in which dancers interpret a work—their styles, technical abilities, and physical appearance—always change the work each time it is performed.
Theatrical elements

Music, design, and drama have all played important roles in the evolution of dance, and in many cultures dance has actually been inseparable from these arts. The Greek word mousikē, for example, referring to music, poetry, and dance as one form, reflected the integral relation between these three arts in classical Greek drama. In the early European ballets, dance, music, drama, and spectacle were equally inseparable.
Even where dance is perceived as an independent art form, most choreography is still accompanied by one or more of these elements. Choreographers generally regard them as integral parts of the works. Sound and visual effects, for example, can clarify the dramatic effect of a dance movement and can also help the spectator to perceive more fully its aesthetic qualities. In a general way, music, design, and drama also work together to heighten the experience of dance as something removed from everyday experience, inspiring a special attention in the spectator.
The most important element of dance is music, and it is rare for dance of any kind—social, theatrical, or religious—to develop without musical accompaniment. The close relation between dance and music is based on the fact that both are organized around rhythmic pattern; thus, the rhythm of the accompanying music may be used to determine the rhythm of the dance, to give it emphasis, or to help the dancers maintain the same beat.
Nearly all physical activity is done rhythmically, as in the beating of the heart, the flow of the breath, and the actions of walking and running. Work activities such as digging, sawing, scrubbing, or planting also tend to fall into a regular rhythm, because that is the most efficient and economical way of working the muscles and pacing the effort. When the rhythm is perfectly even, a regular pattern of time and force is established—each inhalation and exhalation of the breath and each stride or stroke of the saw taking the same amount of time and using the same amount of energy. In dance, too, the setting up of regular, efficient rhythms may also be important in allowing the dancer to continue dancing for a long time, whether the dancer be a Ṣūfī dervish or a disco dancer.
Individual dance movements also have a natural rhythm that determines the way in which they can be executed. A high leap, for example, can take only a certain amount of time (the force of gravity preventing a very prolonged duration and the height of the leap precluding a very quick one). Thus, the rhythm, or pattern of accents, imposed on the leap can be neither very sharp nor very sustained.
Even though choreographers are limited to those rhythms permitted by the various dance movements, they do not always use those that are most natural and efficient. It may be easier for a dancer to perform a section of runs and jumps at a moderate, evenly paced rhythm, but this may not produce the effect that the choreographer wants.
Choreographers vary dance rhythms for many reasons, the most basic being the wish to create different qualities of movement—a slow, even rhythm, for example, to create softness and fluidity, or a fast, asymmetrical rhythm to make the movement attenuated or uneven. Varying the qualities of movement may also have a dramatic function, rhythm often determining whether a movement appears joyous, calm, or anguished. Also, choreographers following a musical score may manipulate the rhythms of the dance movements either to match or counterpoint those of the music.
Rhythm is a vital element of all dances in all cultures, even in those African and Asian dances whose complex rhythms are often imperceptible to the Western observer. In these forms, the drummer may play a different rhythm with each hand, one setting the basic pulse and the other producing a pattern of sound to reflect the mood or meaning of the dance. The dancer, too, may set up one rhythm in the stamping of the feet while marking out another in the torso, arms, or head, thus producing a highly varied and irregular pattern of sounds and movements. It is rare for dance not to follow any kind of rhythmic organization, just as poets who do not follow a strict metre still emphasize and manipulate the rhythms of language.
Many of the terms used in reference to dance rhythm, such as tempo, dynamics, and beat, are derived from music, as most dance is either set to music or accompanied by it. Particularly in cases where the choreographer sets the dance to a previously composed score, the music may determine both the length and structure of the work and even the exact phrasing of the movements. At its simplest, there may be an exact correspondence between the notes and the dance steps, as in a basic waltz melody. On a more complex scale, as in the music visualization popular with such choreographers as Ruth St. Denis, dancers or groups of dancers are assigned to specific instruments and are choreographed in such a manner that they duplicate on stage the relationships among the instruments in the orchestra.
Balanchine was said to have translated music into spatial terms, manipulating the floor patterns and the grouping of the dancers so that they corresponded to the appearance and development of particular chord sequences, rhythmic patterns, melodies, or sections of counterpoint. Nijinsky, on the other hand, in L’Après-midi d’un faune (1912; “Afternoon of a Faun”), used Claude Debussy’s music purely for atmosphere, permitting it to set the mood rather than influence the organization of movements.
Music can determine the style or dramatic quality of a dance. In fact, composers are often instructed to emphasize or clarify the drama already inherent in the choreography. In Western ballet it is common for important characters to have their own musical themes expressing and identifying their personalities or for whole sections of music to be written in the style of the character dancing to them—as in the sweet, tinkling music that Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed for the Sugar Plum Fairy in The Nutcracker. In plotless dances music and movement also reflect and reinforce each other, as in Ashton’s Monotones (1965–66), where the clear, uncluttered lines of the choreography reflect the limpidity of Erik Satie’s music.
Certain choreographers in the second half of the 20th century worked either without music or in such a way that music and dance remained wholly independent of each other. Merce Cunningham choreographed in silence, so that while the music helped to determine the overall mood of the dance, it rarely affected the dance’s phrasing and structure and often did not even last for the same length of time. Cunningham believed that too close a correspondence between dance and music would not really help the audience to perceive the two forms more clearly but, rather, would have the opposite effect of each canceling the other out. Other choreographers, such as Jerome Robbins in Moves (1959), used complete silence even in performance, so that the natural sounds of the dance movements formed the only accompaniment, leaving the spectator to concentrate solely on the patterns and rhythms of the movement. Others have used natural or electronic sounds and even spoken words in an effort to separate dance from a close relationship with music while still providing it with some relationship to sound.
It is likely that music accompanied dance from earliest times, either through sounds such as stamping, clapping, and singing that the dancers made themselves, through percussion, or through various wind instruments such as pipes or flutes. In modern Afro-Caribbean dances it is possible to discern the effects that drumming and percussive-sounding movements can have on dancing—in maintaining the dancer’s beat, providing accompaniment, and intensifying the dance’s emotional power. A slow, heavy beat can create a mood of tension or expectancy, while a fast beat may build the dance to a joyous or dramatic climax. The rhythms of the drums, reinforced by clapping and stamping, can amplify the rhythms of the movements (the sway of the pelvis, the rippling of the spine) as well as set up a complex counterpoint with them to produce variations in tempo and phrasing.
Clapping and stamping can also play an important role in producing the hypnotic effect necessary to certain ritual dances, uniting both spectators and dancers in a single world of sound and clearing their minds of everyday preoccupations. In the war and hunting dances of many tribes, sound is often used in an imitative way, with the dancers uttering war cries or animal sounds in order to further their transformation into warriors or the hunters’ prey.
In many Indian and Asian classical dances, stamping also plays an important role in maintaining the beat. Music, too, is very important, and many dances are accompanied by specific songs or musical compositions. In the Middle Eastern raqṣ sharqī, the song or music establishes the mood or narrative situation of the dance, which the performer then interprets through movement. In the Indian bharata natyam the dancer is accompanied by a singer, who marks the movements with a tiny pair of cymbals while singing out instructions to the dancer. Bells tied around the dancer’s ankles also accompany the movements with their sound. Just as in Western theatre dance, the music accompanying these different dance forms is important both for its dramatic function—emphasizing moments of climax or different emotional states—and for its ability to increase the spectator’s pleasure in and awareness of the movement.
Social dance is nearly always accompanied by music, which not only helps to keep the dancers in time with each other but also increases the power and excitement of the dance, encouraging the dancers to abandon themselves to their movements. Sometimes individual dances have developed in response to a new musical form, as in jazz and rock and roll; but dance has also had an important influence on music, as in the Renaissance, when musicians were required to produce music to accompany the new dances that were developing.
Choreographers and composers alike often feel limited and frustrated when they have to create their own works within the limits of someone else’s artistic conception. The most fruitful relationship is often one in which an element of collaboration exists between composer and choreographer from the start. Fokine’s collaboration with Stravinsky on The Firebird (1910) is an example of both score and choreography emerging from long and detailed discussion, during which each artist remained sensitive to the other’s wishes and to the overall idea of the work. There are no rules, however, and while some choreographers dislike being subjected to the limitations and demands of a musical score, others regard them as important creative stimuli.
Most dances have a traditional relationship with particular musical works or with particular kinds of music. Although ballet has always had a close relation to classical (as opposed to popular) music, many people have found unacceptable its use of established masterpieces that were not specially composed for ballet. It was not until the 20th century that this practice came into being, with Isadora Duncan performing to Richard Wagner, Johannes Brahms, and Frédéric Chopin and Léonide Massine choreographing his symphonic ballets to the works of Hector Berlioz, Brahms, and Tchaikovsky.
During the 20th century a close relationship also existed between modern dance and contemporary music, often music of a highly experimental nature. Thus, choreographers used, or even commissioned, works from composers such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Luciano Berio, Aaron Copland, and John Cage. But it is common for both contemporary ballet and modern dance to use a variety of musical forms: modern dance may use early classical or non-Western music, while ballet may be performed to popular music. Also, as mentioned above, the concept of musical accompaniment has been stretched to include any kind of natural sound, electronic score, spoken text, or even silence.
Set And Design
Just as music can enhance the mood of a dance and influence the way in which the spectator interprets its dramatic content, so visual elements such as costume, makeup, masks, props, lighting, and stage sets may also amplify certain qualities of dance movement. Because set and design are vital elements of theatre, they are most important in those types of theatre dance, whether dramatic or abstract, in which dancers perform before nonparticipating spectators. Therefore, most discussion of the use of visual elements in dance centres on theatre dance.
Such visual elements as costume and makeup do play a role in participatory social and ritual dances, however. In most war and hunting dances the participants not only imitate the movements of warriors or prey but also use weapons, masks, makeup, and animal skins to heighten the realism of the dance. The wearing of animal skins is a common means in many such dances to magically acquire the animals’ strength or agility—hence the eagle feathers worn in the headdresses of many North American Indians or the deerskin shoes traditionally worn by the Scots.
In other ritual dances the dancers’ clothes may well possess magical or religious significance. The Ṣūfī dancer begins his ritual by divesting himself of a black cloak that is symbolic of the tomb. Body painting in symbolic colours is characteristic of many tribal dances as a means of keeping away evil spirits, while the embroidery on a number of European national costumes is often a relic from the days when it functioned as a magic charm. Most important of all, the wearing of special clothes in ritual dances, as in rituals not involving dance, is a way of signaling and preserving the sacred quality of the occasion and removing it from ordinary life.
In festive dances, too, clothes and ornamentation play an important role in embellishing the movement and heightening the atmosphere of gaiety, pomp, or excitement. Social dances frequently have special clothes associated with them—such as the evening suits and voluminous sequined dresses of ballroom dancing or the tight, black clothes of rock and roll. Such clothes are not only the fashion of the era but also the uniform that identifies the dancer more strongly with the dance and the other dancers. Like music, clothes can help dancers surrender their everyday selves to the dance.
In theatre dances everywhere, the use of visual effects is crucial to the power of the dance. In the Indian kathakali, facial makeup is central to the portrayal of character. Differently coloured beards are used to represent good or bad characters, while the colour of the makeup is even more revealing: a green and red painted face represents an evil and ferocious character, a green and white face is for heroes and noblemen, a pinkish-yellow face is for women characters and sages, and black and red makeup is used for female demons.
The bharata natyam dancer relies more purely on the mudras for character portrayal, but makeup and costume are still highly important. The graceful, sinuous lines of the dancer’s movements are emphasized by the bare torso and flowing skirt or trousers, while the intricate detail of the mudras is reflected in the rich jewels, flowers, and decoration of the costume.
Costume And Stage Sets In Western Theatre Dance
Masks have also been used as a means of characterization in many dance forms, from ancient Egypt to the early European court ballets. One reason early ballet dancers were limited in their dance technique was that the masks they wore to represent different characters were so elaborate and their wigs and clothes so heavy that it was scarcely possible to jump or to move across the floor with any speed or lightness.
The early ballets not only had elaborate costumes but also were performed in spectacular settings. The Mountain Ballet, performed in the early 17th century, had five enormous mountains as its stage scenery, in the middle of which was a “Field of Glory.” The dance historian Gaston Vuillier later described the scene:
Fame opened the ballet and explained its subject. Disguised as an old woman she rode an ass and carried a wooden trumpet. Then the mountains opened their sides, and quadrilles of dancers came out, in flesh coloured attire, having bellows in their hands, led by the nymph Echo, wearing bells for headdresses, and on their bodies lesser bells, and carrying drums. Falsehood hobbled forward on a wooden leg, with masks hung over his coat, and a dark lantern in his hand.
It was even known for ballets to be staged outdoors, with mock sea battles staged on artificial lakes.
Gradually, as dancers shed their encumbering costumes and stage designs were simplified, dance movement and mime became more important in the depiction of plot and character. Set design and costume were tailored to the ballet’s theme and atmosphere, rather than swamping the choreography with their elaborate opulence. The development of gas lighting meant that magical effects could be created with simple painted scenery, and though wire contraptions were sometimes used to fly the ballerina (as a sylph or bird) across the stage, the development of pointe work (dancing on the toes) meant that the dancer could appear weightless and ethereal without any artificial aids. In place of highly decorative mythological or classical scenes, there were poetic evocations of landscape, and the ballerinas were either dressed in simple white dresses or in colourful national dress. The poet, critic, and librettist Théophile Gautier described the typical “white” or ethereal Romantic ballet as follows:
The twelve marble and gold houses of the Olympians were relegated to the dust of the storehouse and only the romantic forests and valleys lit by the charming German moonlight of Heinrich Heine’s ballads exist.… This new style brought a great abuse of white gauze, of tulle and tarlatans and shadows melted into mist through transparent dresses. White was almost the only colour used.
This unity of dance and design was not to last, however. By the end of the 19th century most of the productions mounted at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg were lavish spectacles in which set and costume had little relevance to the ballet’s theme, being designed simply to please the audiences’ taste for opulence. At the beginning of the 20th century one of the first revolutionary steps that Michel Fokine took in trying to change this state of affairs was to dress his dancers in costumes as nearly authentic as possible—for example, by replacing the prevailing tutu with clinging draperies (as in the Egyptian costumes for Eunice [1908]) and by dispensing with the dancers’ shoes. (Actually, the theatre management did not allow dancers to go barefoot, but they had red toenails painted onto their tights to achieve the same impression.)
This move was part of Fokine’s general commitment to the idea that movement, music, and design should be integrated into an aesthetic and dramatic whole. His collaboration with designers such as Léon Bakst and Alexandre Benois were as important as his musical collaboration with Stravinsky. Sets and costumes not only reflected the period in which the ballet was set but also helped to create the dramatic mood or atmosphere—as in Le Spectre de la rose (1911; “The Spirit of the Rose”), where the exquisite rose-petaled costume of the spectre, or spirit, seemed almost to emit a magical perfume, and where the simple naturalism of the sleeping girl’s bedroom emphasized her dreaming innocence.
In the newly emerging modern dance, experiments with set, lighting, and costume design were also significant. One of the pioneers in this field was Loie Fuller, a solo dancer whose performances in the 1890s and early 1900s consisted of very simple movements with complex visual effects. Swathing herself in yards of diaphanous material, she created elaborate shapes and transformed herself into a variety of magical phenomena. These illusions were enhanced by coloured lights and slide projections playing across the floating material.
Elaborate lighting and costumes were also used by Ruth St. Denis, whose dances frequently evoked ancient and exotic cultures. At the opposite extreme Martha Graham, who began her career as a dancer with St. Denis’ company, strove to eliminate all unnecessary ornamentation in her designs. Costumes were made out of simple jersey and cut along stark lines that clearly revealed the dancers’ movements. Simple but dramatic lighting suggested the mood of the piece. Graham also pioneered the use of sculpture in dance works, replacing painted scenery and elaborate props with simple, free-standing structures. These had a number of functions: suggesting, often symbolically, the place or theme of the work; creating new levels and areas of stage space; and also illuminating the overall design of the piece.
While it has remained common for choreographers to use elaborately realistic sets and costumes, as in Kenneth MacMillan’s Romeo and Juliet in 1965, most choreographers have tended to adopt a minimal approach, with costumes and scenery simply suggesting the ballet’s characters and location rather than representing them in detail. One reason for this development has been the move away from narrative to plotless, or formal, works in both ballet and modern dance, where there is no longer any need for visual effects to provide narrative background. Balanchine set many of his works on a bare stage with the dancers dressed only in practice costumes, feeling that this would allow the spectators to see the lines and patterns of the dancers’ movements more clearly.
Set, costume, and lighting design are important in narrative as well as formal dance in helping the audience maintain the special attention that theatre demands. They can also influence strongly the way in which the choreography is perceived, either by creating a mood (sombre or festive, depending on the colour and ornamentation used) or by strengthening a choreographic image or concept. In Richard Alston’s Wildlife (1984) the geometrically shaped kites suspended from the flies actually inspired some of the dancers’ sharply angled movements as well as making them visually more striking in performance.
Costume, too, can alter the appearance of movement: a skirt can give fuller volume to turns or to high leg extensions, while a close-fitting leotard reveals every detail of the body’s movements. Some choreographers, trying to emphasize the nontheatrical or nonspectacular aspects of dance, have dressed their dancers in ordinary street clothes in order to give a neutral, everyday look to their movements, and they have often dispensed entirely with set and lighting.
Set design and lighting (or their absence) can help to frame the choreography and to define the space in which it appears. The space in which a dance occurs has, in fact, a crucial influence on the way movement is perceived. Thus, a small space can make the movement look bigger (and possibly more cramped and urgent), while a large space can lessen its scale and possibly make it appear more remote. Similarly, a cluttered stage, or one with only a few lighted areas, may make the dance appear compressed, even fragmented, while a clearly lighted, open space may make the movement appear unconfined. Two choreographers who had been most innovative in their use of set and lighting were Alwin Nikolais and Merce Cunningham. The former has used props, lighting, and costumes to create a world of strange, often inhuman shapes—as in his Sanctum (1964). The latter has often worked with sets that almost dominate the dancing, either by filling the stage with a clutter of objects (some of which are simply things taken from the outside world, such as cushions, television sets, chairs, or bits of clothing) or—as in Walkaround Time (1968)—by using elaborate constructions around which the dance takes place, often partly concealed. As with his use of music, Cunningham’s sets were often conceived independently of the choreography and were used to create a complex visual field rather than to reflect the dancing.
Perhaps the most important influence on the way spectators perceive dance is the place in which it is performed. Religious dances usually take place within sacred buildings or on sacred ground, thus preserving their spiritual character. Most theatre dance also occurs in a special building or venue, heightening the audience’s sense that it has entered a different world. Most venues create some kind of separation between the dancers and the audience in order to intensify this illusion. A theatre with a proscenium stage, in which an arch separates the stage from the auditorium, creates a marked distance. Performance in the round, in which the dancers are surrounded by spectators on all sides, probably lessens both the distance and the illusion. In dance forms that do not traditionally take place in a theatre, such as Afro-Caribbean dance, the intimacy between audience and dancer is very close, and the former may often be called upon to participate.
The theatre space not only influences the relationship between the audience and the dancer but is also closely related to the style of the choreography. Thus, in the early court ballets, spectators sat on three sides of the dancers, often looking down at the stage, because the intricate floor patterns woven by the dancers, rather than their individual steps, were important. Once ballet was introduced into the theatre, however, dance had to develop in such a way that it could be appreciated from a single, frontal perspective. This is one reason turned-out positions were emphasized and extended, for they allowed the dancer to appear completely open to the spectators and, in particular, to move sideways gracefully without having to turn away from them in profile.
Many modern choreographers, wishing to present dance as part of ordinary life and to challenge the way in which people look at it, have used a variety of nontheatrical venues to dispel the illusion or glamour of the performance. Choreographers such as Meredith Monk, Trisha Brown, and Twyla Tharp, working in the 1960s and ’70s, performed dances in parks, streets, museums, and galleries, often without publicity or without a viewing charge. In this way dance was meant to “happen” among the people instead of in a special context. Even the most surprising or nonglamorous venue, however, cannot entirely dispel the sense of distance between dancer and audience and between dance and ordinary life.
Throughout history there has been a rough division between dramatic dance, which expresses or imitates emotion, character, and narrative action, and purely formal dance, which stresses the lines and patterns of movement itself (see above Dance as dramatic expression or abstract form). The type and function of dramatic dance vary considerably, including full-length theatrical works (in which dance is used to tell a story and present specific characters), hunting dances (in which the dancers’ movements imitate those of a particular animal), and courtship dances (which may contain only a few pantomimic gestures, such as a lift, a curtsy, or a mock kiss, to convey meaning).
Because dance movements are often closely related to everyday forms of physical expression, there is an expressive quality inherent in nearly all dancing. This quality is used extensively in dramatic dance to communicate action or emotion—for example, the aggression in stamping movements, the exhilaration communicated by jumping, and the dragging motions of despair. Mime, or narrative gesture, is also used. Mime can either imitate movement realistically—in a death scene, for example, where the killer assumes a ferocious expression and imitates strangling a victim—or it can function as a symbol—as in the circling movement of the arms in ballet to represent dancing or in pointing to the fourth finger to represent marriage. Dance movements are often accompanied by other elements, such as masks, costume, music, acting, singing, recitation, and even film, to help communicate the dramatic content.
Cultural distinction between dramatic and formal dance
Musicologist Curt Sachs argued that the division between dramatic and formal dance in tribal cultures followed the division between hunting and planter cultures. While the accuracy of his claim may be hard to establish, it can help to illuminate the different types and function of dance that lie at the root of such a division. In hunting dances (and war dances as well) the dancers’ movements are dramatically charged, expressing a state of excitement or aggression and frequently imitating the movements of animals or fighting men, even to the point of manipulating weapons. Imitative sounds increase the power of the illusion, as does the wearing of masks, makeup, or animal skins. The effect on both dancer and spectator is to be drawn into a fictional world, in which the dancers become the people or animals that they represent and the story or situation enacted by the dance takes on an immediate reality. Any successful dramatic dance should, in fact, produce this effect, even if the dancers do not actually feel the emotions they are representing or the spectators respond as if the imitation were real.
In the dances of planter cultures, Sachs argued, the movements tend to be smaller and not directly imitative. The groupings of the dancers and the floor patterns traced by their steps, on the other hand, tend to be much more complex and ordered. In addition, the sequence of movements tends to be more repetitive and the dancers’ movements are more uniform. Such formal dances are often performed as part of a ritual propitiation of the gods in order to assure good weather and successful harvests. Although their movements may not be imitative, the repetitive patterns often represent such natural occurrences as the cycle of the seasons, the waxing and waning of the Moon, and the growing of vegetation, and they even evoke more abstract entities such as space and time. The effect may thus be one of fusing the dancers and spectators with some aspect of the natural world. At the same time the dance may produce an effect similar to the repetitive chanting of prayer or meditation, emptying the mind of its usual preoccupations and focusing it on the object of worship. In fact, the power of dance in achieving this type of spiritual discipline is peculiarly strong, since the repetitive movements work kinesthetically as well as aurally and visually. As a consequence, mind and body are equally absorbed into the ritual.
Even where formal dances are not part of a ritual (as in modern plotless dance works), the movement of the dancers may produce an effect not dissimilar to that described above. Space, time, and the force of gravity may be made apparent to the spectator through the trajectories that the dancers make in space, through the configurations that they form on the dance floor, through the duration of the dance phrases, and through the alternating sensations of weight and weightlessness created by falls and jumps. In a similar way, too, the audience may experience a special focusing of attention, a draining of the usual habits of perception through the kinesthetic, visual, and aural power of the movement and music.
Many extant tribal dances can be categorized as either imitative or formal, as can the European folk dances that developed out of earlier tribal dance forms. Courtship dances, the descendants of ancient courtship and fertility dances, still retain overt imitations of flirtatiousness. Other dances have similarly retained their early formal character, even, in some cases, retaining the symbolic significance of their patterns. In Ukrainian dances descended from pagan Moon-worshiping ritual, the circling of the dancers represents the way the Moon influences the work in the fields, and the final pivot represents the flourishing of the corn. In Armenian carpet-weaving dances, the complex floor patterns mimic the action of the work process.
Drama in Western theatre dance
When dance developed into a form of spectacle, particularly of a secular kind, it was frequently allied to the telling of a story and the depiction of characters. Mimed gesture was often prominent in such dance dramas—for example, in ancient Greece, where the gestures of the chorus illustrated the drama’s major themes. There the mime was often naturalistic: a hand on the head to represent grief or the stretching upward of the arms to express worship. During the later, cosmopolitan period of the Roman Empire, dance and mime were popular entertainment for audiences drawn from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. The highly sophisticated pantomime used by these dancers formed the basis of the improvised mime drama of the 16th-century Italian commedia dell’arte and, later, the techniques of 20th-century mime artists such as Marcel Marceau.
The early European court ballets were also oriented toward dramatic spectacle, though the dance movement itself was not highly expressive and mimed gesture was limited. Other dramatic elements, usually visual effects or speech, communicated the essential points of the story. One of the first choreographers to extend dance movement so that it could be dramatically expressive was the English dancer and ballet master John Weaver, who in his ballet The Loves of Mars and Venus (1717) experimented with giving the characters gestures to express their individual personalities. Later in the 18th century Jean-Georges Noverre reacted against the purely decorative form into which ballet had developed. He believed that mime should be as close to natural gesture as possible and that dance movement should not be meaninglessly decorative but should reflect the ballet’s action.
Noverre’s ideas were partly realized in the Romantic ballet of the early 19th century, which strove to give movement a greater poetic expressiveness. Developments in dance technique, notably that of dancing en pointe (“on one’s toes,” or in toe shoes), gave dancers a wider range of movement to express character and action, although conventional or symbolic mime was also used to tell parts of the story. By the end of the century, however, choreography was once again seldom concerned with plot and character, and long sections of mime (often incomprehensible even to the dancers) were used to tell whatever story there was in the dance. The reforms proposed by Fokine at the beginning of the 20th century, like those of Noverre two centuries before, demanded more naturally expressive mime and dance movement that illuminated theme and character and were an essential component of the dance.
Fokine’s own work reflected these ideas faithfully. He experimented with angular movement reminiscent of archaic Greece in Daphnis et Chloé (1912; “Daphnis and Chloé”), developed individual styles for different characters (such as the jerky wooden movements of the puppet Petrushka), and brought mime much closer to natural gesture than the symbolic code previously used. This naturalism still characterizes ballet; the expressive qualities of dance movement and simple, dramatic gestures almost entirely displace conventional mime, and even in revivals of the 19th-century classics, traditional mime is usually kept to a minimum so that audiences have no trouble following it.
The founders of modern dance, Isadora Duncan, Mary Wigman, Martha Graham, and Doris Humphrey, also reacted against the lack of expression in ballet. Like Fokine, they believed that most ballet dancing was mere decorative acrobatics, but while Fokine was happy to continue using exotic or archaic themes for his new, naturalistic ballets, these later choreographers believed that dance should address subjects of greater relevance and profundity. The kinds of movement with which the modern dance choreographers expressed these themes had little of conventional ballet technique about them. Eschewing mime, particularly that associated with ballet, as well as the traditional ballet vocabulary, they sought to make the whole body dramatically expressive. (See below Theatre dance: Modern dance.)
Throughout the 20th century, ballet, like modern dance, moved toward a concern with more serious issues. In works such as Antony Tudor’s Jardin aux lilas (1936; “The Lilac Garden”), Peter Darrell’s Prisoners (1957), Gerald Arpino’s Clowns (1968), and Kenneth MacMillan’s My Brother, My Sisters (1978), choreographers engaged subject matter ranging from emotional and psychological conflict to war and social issues.
In the avant-garde dance of the 1970s and ’80s, experiments were made in expanding narrative potential by incorporating nondance elements (almost turning full circle back to the early court ballets). At times dance was accompanied by mime, acting, and singing as well as a multitude of visual effects. In some cases choreographers collaborated with artists working in other forms, such as music, drama, and the visual arts, and they thought of dance less as a single discipline than as a broadly based theatre art. Most of these experimental works had some kind of dramatic or conceptual content, although they avoided conventional forms of narration and expression. Events were rarely presented in chronological order, and the distinction between reality, symbolism, and fantasy was often blurred.
Types of dance
The division of dance into types can be made on many different grounds. Function (e.g., theatrical, religious, recreational) is an obvious ground, but distinctions can also be made between tribal, ethnic, and folk dance, between amateur and professional, and above all between different genres and styles.
Genre and style are relatively ambiguous terms. They depend on analyses of movement style, structure, and performance context (i.e., where the dance is performed, who is watching, and who is dancing) as well as on a cluster of general cultural attitudes concerning the role and value of dance in society. Genre usually refers to a self-contained formal tradition such as ballet, within which there may be further subgenres, such as classical and modern ballet. (Some critics consider modern dance as an independent genre with a subgenre of postmodern dance, but others subsume both categories under ballet, along with other theatre dance forms such as jazz.) Within subgenres, different styles can be distinguished, such as those of Ashton, MacMillan, and Balanchine in modern ballet and Graham and Cunningham in modern dance. Style as used here embraces many elements, including a preference for certain kinds of movement (fast, slow, simple, or intricate) or for particular kinds of energy and attack (sharp, edgy, and hard, as opposed to soft and fluid). It also embraces different ways of phrasing movement or of arranging dancers into groups, as well as an interest in certain kinds of music or design.
Perhaps the most obvious division between types is that between theatre and non-theatre dance. The separation of dancer and spectator in theatre dance has tremendous influence on the style of the dance itself and on its reception as an art form. In theatre dance the professionalism of dancer and choreographer, the presentation of dramatic and formal movement, the use of visual effects, and even the philosophical question of the role of the spectator reach their most sophisticated level. In non-theatre dance the unity of dancer and spectator, of observation and participation, means that the dance styles and even the function within the social group are quite different from those of theatre dance.
Of course, the division between the two types is not as clear in practice as in theory. For example, although ethnic and folk dances are not, in theory, theatre dances, many of them are preserved, choreographed, and presented to audiences in theatrical settings. Some scholars have even argued that ballet is an ethnic dance form that grew out of the European dance tradition. On the other hand, Indian and Southeast Asian dance forms are usually called ethnic dances, but within these traditions there are numerous classical dances whose theatrical settings and elaborate choreographies qualify them as theatre dances.
Among the theatre dances, this section discusses the two major Western genres, ballet and modern dance, as well as Indian classical dance. Among the non-theatre dance forms, this section discusses tribal and ethnic dance, folk dance, and social dance.
Theatre dance


Basic characteristics
Ballet has been the dominant genre in Western theatre dance since its development as an independent form in the 17th century, and its characteristic style of movement is still based on the positions and steps developed in the court dances of the 16th and 17th centuries (see above Basic steps and formations). Perhaps the most basic feature of the ballet style is the turned-out position of the legs and feet, in which the legs are rotated in the hip socket to an angle of 90 degrees and the feet point outward. This position gives the body an open, symmetrical appearance, and it also facilitates the high leg extensions and fast turns typical of ballet. Openness is most characteristic of the ballet dancer’s stance, for the head is nearly always lifted and the arms held out in extended curves. Even when the dancer executes fast or energetic steps, the arms rarely move in a way that is not fluid, calm, and gracefully extended, and they are frequently held in positions that either frame the face or form a harmonious relation to the position of the legs. The body is nearly always held erect, apart from controlled arches in the back or a slight turning of the shoulders toward or away from the working leg. This positioning of the shoulders, called épaulement, gives a sculpted, three-dimensional quality to the dancer’s positions.
Whenever the ballet dancer’s foot is not flat on the floor, it is pointed, and, of course, women dancers (and occasionally men) frequently dance on the tips of their toes with the aid of blocked shoes. Dancing en pointe lends lightness and airiness to the dancer’s movements, and the pointed toe extends the line of the leg—particularly when it is raised in the air, as in an arabesque.
The long vertical line is the other basic feature of ballet: verticality in the upright stance of the body, in the high leg extensions, and above all in the aerial quality of the movement. Ballet dancers rarely move close to the ground, and they frequently seem to defy gravity through the height of their jumps and their vigorous batterie (beating together of the legs in midair), through the speed and multiplicity of their turns, and through the fast linking steps that seem to move them effortlessly, almost without touching the floor, from one virtuoso movement to another. In ballet the stress and effort of the dancer’s movements are always concealed beneath the fluid, graceful surface of the dance and the perfect repose of the face and torso. This gives the dance its characteristic qualities of dignity and control, which it inherited from the early court ballets, where the movements were designed to show off the aristocratic polish of the dancers.
Ballet has, of course, undergone many stylistic alterations. The Romantic style of the early to mid-19th century was much softer—less studded with virtuosic jumps and turns—than the classical style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Russian ballet, frequently regarded as the paradigm of the classical school, is itself a blend of the soft and decorative French school, the more brittle and virtuosic style of the Italians, and the vigorous athleticism of Russian folk dances.
The design of classical ballet is traditionally symmetrical in the shapes made by the dancers’ bodies, in the grouping of the dancers on stage, and even in the structure of the whole dance. For example, if two principal dancers perform a pas de deux (a dance for two), other dancers on stage remain still, are arranged in symmetrical framing patterns, or move in harmony with the main dancing, not distracting from it. Even when large groups of dancers move, they are usually arranged in formal lines or circles. Jean-Georges Noverre in the 18th century and Michel Fokine in the first decades of the 20th both argued that this kind of formal symmetry was detrimental to the dramatic naturalism of ballet. Fokine’s own choreography encouraged the use of less rigid and artificial groupings in later ballet, as in Kenneth MacMillan’s dramatic works, where the crowd scenes are often composed of asymmetrical groups that rarely seem artificial.
Innovations in the 20th century
Fokine’s reforms were a major influence on the development of 20th-century ballet. Particularly in the works that he created for Serge Diaghilev’s company, the Ballets Russes, he showed the range of different dance styles that classical ballet was capable of absorbing, helping to pave the way for more radical innovation. For example, in Chopiniana (1908; later called Les Sylphides), a virtually plotless ballet that recalled the earlier Romantic tradition, Fokine created a soft and uncluttered style that contained no bravura feats of jumping, turning, or batterie. Arm movements were simple and unaffected, the grouping of the dancers had a fluid, plastic quality, and above all there was a flowing, lyrical line in the phrasing and movement.
In Prince Igor (1909) and L’Oiseau de feu (1910; The Firebird) Fokine incorporated the vigorous style and athletic steps of Russian folk dances. These works revealed his talent for organizing large crowds of dancers on stage and transforming their previously ornamental function into a powerful dramatic force. Neither ballet is longer than a single act, because Fokine believed that the full-length ballet was generally both an excuse for, and the cause of, useless choreographic padding, and that a work should last only as long as its theme required.
For all its stylistic variations, Fokine’s choreography was couched largely in the classical idiom. Two other choreographers working with the Ballets Russes, Vaslav Nijinsky and his sister Bronislava Nijinska, produced works of a more radical nature. In Jeux (1913; “Games”), Nijinsky was one of the first choreographers to introduce a modern theme and modern design into ballet. Based on his own (rather erroneous) idea of a tennis match, the choreography incorporated sporting movements and dancers in modern dress. In The Rite of Spring, perhaps Nijinsky’s most innovative work, the dancers were arranged in massed groupings and executed harsh, primitive movements, the legs turned in, the arms hanging heavily, and the heads lolling to one side. Unlike Fokine, Nijinsky was prepared to risk ugliness in his search for a truly authentic style, and the audiences were almost as deeply shocked by the choreography as by the discordant sounds and jagged rhythms of Stravinsky’s score.
In her ballet Les Noces (1923; “The Wedding”), which took its theme from the marriage ceremonies of Russian peasants, Nijinska created a stark and heavily weighted style of movement. There were few elevations, and the dancers were frequently crouched or bent over, with their heads hanging low to the floor. They were also arranged in large groups, so that the overall impression was less that of individual bodies moving together than of large shapes and blocks of movement.
Although there are similarities between the works of these choreographers and the modern-dance forms that emerged in the 1920s and ’30s, there is little evidence to suggest any direct influence. The major significance of Fokine, Nijinsky, and Nijinska was in their bringing ballet out of its remote, courtly past by using modern themes and subjects and by introducing modern intellectual and artistic influences into the classical art form.
The style of later 20th-century ballet was influenced not only by the Ballets Russes but by modern dance as well. It became common for choreographers to extend the traditional ballet vocabulary with modern-dance techniques, such as curving and tilting the body away from the vertical line, working on or close to the floor, and using turned-in leg positions and flexed feet. Balanchine, influenced by jazz, used syncopated rhythms in his phrasing and incorporated steps from such popular dances as ragtime and rock and roll. His movements were usually wide, almost exaggerated in shape and volume, and frequently characterized by speed and by hard, clear accents.
Despite these changes ballet retains significant traces of its courtly and classical past. Although there are exceptions, such as those noted above, ballet dancers still tend to dance in the calm, erect, and dignified manner of their aristocratic forebears. Illusion and spectacle remain important; nearly all works are performed on a proscenium stage in a large theatre, where the performers are distanced from the audience, and productions are frequently elaborate and expensive. Ballet companies still, therefore, tend to be large organizations, receiving some kind of patronage or state subsidy.

Modern Dance

Modern dance, the other major genre of Western theatre dance, developed in the early 20th century as a series of reactions against what detractors saw as the limited, artificial style of movement of ballet and its frivolous subject matter. Perhaps the greatest pioneer in modern dance was Isadora Duncan. She believed that ballet technique distorted the natural movement of the body, that it “separated the gymnastic movements of the body completely from the mind,” and that it made dancers move like “articulated puppets” from the base of the spine. Duncan worked with simple movements and natural rhythms, finding her inspiration in the movements of nature—particularly the wind and waves—as well as in the dance forms that she had studied in antique sculpture. Elements that were most characteristic of her dancing included lifted, far-flung arm positions, an ecstatically lifted head, unconstrained leaps, strides, and skips, and, above all, strong, flowing rhythms in which one movement melted into the next. Her costumes, too, were unconstrained; she danced barefoot and uncorseted in simple, flowing tunics, with only the simplest props and lighting effects to frame her movements.
Duncan believed that dance should be the “divine expression” of the human spirit, and this concern with the inner motivation of dance characterized all early modern choreographers. They presented characters and situations that broke the romantic, fairy-tale surface of contemporary ballet and explored the primitive instincts, the conflicts and passions of man’s inner self. To this end they sought to develop a style of movement that was more natural and more expressive than ballet. Martha Graham, for example, saw the back, and particularly the pelvis, as the centre of all movement, and many of her most characteristic movements originated from a powerful spiral, arch, or curve in the back. Doris Humphrey saw all human movement as a transition between fall (when the body is off-balance) and recovery (when it returns to a balanced state), and in many of her movements the weight of the body was always just off-centre, falling and being caught.
Instead of defying gravity, as in ballet, modern dancers emphasized their own weight. Even their jumps and high extensions looked as if they were only momentarily escaping from the downward pull of the Earth, and many of their movements were executed close to, or on, the floor. Graham developed a wide repertoire of falls, for example, and Mary Wigman’s style was characterized by kneeling or crouching, the head often dropped and the arms rarely lifted high into the air.
As ballet sought to conceal or defy the force of gravity, so it also strove to conceal the strain of dancing. Modern dance, on the other hand—particularly the work of Graham—emphasized those qualities. In the jagged phrases, angular limbs, clenched fists, and flexed feet, in the forceful movements of the back and the clear lines of tension running through the movement, Graham’s choreography expressed not only the struggle of the dancer against physical limitations but also the power of passion and frustration. Movements were always expressive gestures, never decorative shapes. Often the body and limbs appeared racked and contorted by emotion, for these choreographers, like Nijinsky, were not afraid to appear ugly (as indeed they did to many of their contemporaries).
The structure of early modern dance works responded in part to the fragmented narrative and symbolism characteristic of modernist art and literature. Graham often employed flashback techniques and shifting time scales, as in Clytemnestra (1958), or used different dancers to portray different facets of a single character, as in Seraphic Dialogue (1955). Groups of dancers formed sculptural wholes, often to represent social or psychological forces, and there was little of the hierarchical division between principals and corps de ballet that operated in ballet.
Merce Cunningham
The Expressionist school dominated modern dance for several decades. From the 1940s onward, however, there was a growing reaction against Expressionism spearheaded by Merce Cunningham. Cunningham wanted to create dance that was about itself—about the kinds of movement of which the human body is capable and about rhythm, phrasing, and structure. Above all, he wanted to create dance that was not subservient to the demands of either narrative or emotional expression. This did not mean that Cunningham wanted to make dance subservient to music or design; on the contrary, though many of his works were collaborations, in the sense that music and design formed a strong part of the total effect, these elements were often conceived—and worked—independently of the actual dance.
Cunningham believed that movement should define its own space and set its own rhythms, rather than be influenced by the set and the music. He also felt that it was more interesting and challenging for the spectator to be confronted with these independently functioning elements and then to choose for himself how to relate them to one another.
Believing that all movement was potential dance material, Cunningham developed a style that embraced an extraordinarily wide spectrum, from natural, everyday actions such as sitting down and walking to virtuosic dance movements. Elements of his style even had a close affinity to ballet: jumps tended to be light and airy, the footwork fleet and intricate, and the leg extensions high and controlled. He placed greater emphasis on the vertical and less emphasis on the body’s weight and the force of gravity. Like those of Graham, many of Cunningham’s movements centred on the back and torso, but they tended less toward dramatic contractions and spirals than toward smaller and more sharply defined tilts, curves, and twists. The arms were frequently held in graceful curves and the feet pointed.
Cunningham’s phrases were often composed of elaborate, coordinating movements of the head, feet, body, and limbs in a string of rapidly changing positions. The arrangement of performers on stage was equally complex: at any one moment there might have been several dancers, in what seemed like random groupings, all performing different phrases at the same time. With no main action dominating the stage, the spectator was free to focus on any part of the dance.
While Graham’s works were usually structured around the events of a narrative, Cunningham’s works usually emerged from the working through of one or more choreographic ideas, whose development (i.e., the ordering of movements into phrases or the number of dancers working at any one time) might then have been determined by chance. Deriving its movements from such formal origins did not mean that Cunningham’s works lacked expressive power. One of his pieces, Winterbranch (1964), started out as a study based on moving into a space and falling, but it produced a powerful effect on audiences, who variously interpreted it as a piece about war, concentration camps, or even sea storms. Cunningham believed that the expressive qualities in dance should not be determined by a story line but should simply rise out of movement itself. “The emotion will appear when the movement is danced,” he claimed, “because that is where the life is.”
During the 1960s and ’70s a new generation of American choreographers, generally referred to as postmodernist choreographers, took some of Cunningham’s ideas even farther. They also believed that ordinary movement could be used in dance, but they rejected the strong element of virtuosity in Cunningham’s technique and the complexities of his phrasing and structure, insisting that such a style interfered with the process of seeing and feeling the movement clearly. Consequently, the postmodernists replaced conventional dance steps with simple movements such as rolling, walking, skipping, and running. Their works concentrated on the basic principles of dance: space, time, and the weight and energy of the dancer’s body.
Postmodernists discarded spectacle as another distraction from the real business of movement. Costumes were often ordinary practice or street clothes, there was little or no set and lighting, and many performances took place in lofts, galleries, or out-of-doors. Narrative and expression were discarded, and the dance structures were usually very simple, involving either the repetition and accumulation of simple phrases or the working through of simple movement games or tasks. In Tom Johnson’s Running Out of Breath (1976) the dancer simply ran around the stage reciting a text until he ran out of breath.
Most avant-garde modern-dance companies have been quite small and have occupied a position on the fringe of the dance world, attracting only small and specialist audiences. Although “mainstream” modern dance now attracts large audiences in both Europe and North America, it too was for many decades a minority art form, often playing to only a handful of spectators. Modern-dance companies were then, and still are, relatively small. Partly because they lack funding, they tend to use less elaborate costume and staging, and they perform in small theatres where contact with the audience is close.
The musical
Perhaps the most genuinely popular of all the subgenres within ballet and modern dance are the dance forms associated with the musical, such as tap, jazz, ballroom, and disco. In musicals of both stage and screen, dance is an essential ingredient along with song, acting, and spectacle. Although the dancing is often mechanical and unoriginal, in the work of such dancers and choreographers as Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly it can rise to the status of a genuine art form. Sometimes, as in Jerome Robbins’ choreography for the dances of the rival gangs in West Side Story (1957), it creates a powerful dramatic effect. Other innovative choreographers include Agnes deMille, whose dances in Oklahoma! (1943) were the first ever used to advance the plot, and Bob Fosse, particularly known for his work on the film All That Jazz (1979).
Indian Classical Dance
The six recognized schools of Indian classical dance developed as a part of religious ritual in which dancers worshiped the gods by telling stories about their lives and exploits. Three main components form the basis of these dances. They are natya, the dramatic element of the dance (i.e., the imitation of character); nritta, pure dance, in which the rhythms and phrases of the music are reflected in the decorative movements of the hands and body and in the stamping of the feet; and nritya, the portrayal of mood through facial expression, hand gesture, and position of the legs and feet.
The style of movement in Indian classical dance is very different from that of Western ballet. In ballet the emphasis is frequently on the action of the legs—in jumps, turns, and fast traveling steps, which create ballet’s characteristic qualities of height, speed, and lightness—while the body itself remains relatively still and the arms simply frame the face or balance the body. In Indian dance, however, the legs are usually bent, with the feet flat rather than lifted and pointed. Jumps are usually low (though light), and the dancer rarely covers much ground or performs intricate steps, the complexity of the footwork lying more in elaborate stamping rhythms. (These stamping rhythms enhance the musicality of the dance; many dancers wear bells around their ankles, supplying their own accompaniment as well as counterpoint to the rhythms beaten out by the musicians.) The torso, face, arms, and hands are extremely active. The head is quite mobile, with subtle changes of direction and a characteristic side-to-side movement emphasizing the dancer’s changing facial expressions. The movement of the torso is graceful and fluid, shifting from side to side or turning on the axis of the spine, while the movement of the hands and arms is subtle and elaborate, every gesture having a narrative function. Indian dancers have a vast repertoire of gestures through which they express complex events, ideas, and emotions. There are, for example, 13 gestures of the head, 36 different glances, and 67 mudras, or hand gestures, that can, in various combinations, yield several thousand different meanings.
While these qualities characterize Indian classical dance in general, there are significant variations in each school. Bharata natyam is perhaps the most delicate and elegant of all the form
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