Judaism in Europe has a long history, beginning with the conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean by Pompey in 63 BCE, thus beginning the History of the Jews in the Roman Empire, though likely Alexandrian Jews had migrated to Rome slightly before Pompey's conquest of the East.

The pre-World War II population of European Jews is estimated at close to 9 million (1.5%). It is believed that around 6 million European Jews were murdered in the Holocaust of 1940-1945.

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